IR essentially consist of four components:
1. The kinematics: Construction and order of the axes, leaderships and joints as well as clutches or tools; they determine the movement-possibilities.
2. The drive: He/it consists of motors and mechanisms as well as valves and cylinders (electric, hydraulic and pneumatic drives).
3. The control: She/it picks up the program, pretends the course and oversees him/it, provides for the contact with assigned systems.
4. The measuring-system: It determines position, way and speed of the individual axes.
Further components of an IR-Systems can Z. Be B.: Sensors to the position and form-regulation, Zuführsysteme for workpieces, tool-change-systems and security-systems (Z). B. separating and touch-loosely working protection-facilities.
The security-just formation of the IR has special meaning since the work-areas of human being and machine, Z, overlap. B. with the workpiece-transfer, when furnishing, with the troubleshooting. Therefore, extensive precautions are pre-determined, Z. B.
Precautions of the manufacturer: To avoid of squashes and Scherstellen, need-hold, restriction of the IR-Bewegungsraumes
Precautions of the user: separating protection-facilities (rails, cubicles with window), protection-facilities with approach-reaction (light-curtain, switch-mats, pendulum-tabs), place-binding protection-facilities (two-hand-circuit, switch-plate with caliper), complementary protection-equipment (flying away parts, emissions of all the type) (illustration)
Hold back the employee: Automatikbetrieb only at activated protection-facilities and after abandonment of the danger-area; Exception only, if necessarily necessary, for in writing assigned person; Furnishes preferably from outside the danger-area; Protection-facilities in the in-Rich-TB-instinct use.
Three business-courses mark the IR-Betrieb: the programming-business, that Automatikbetrieb and the upkeep. The programming-business includes the arranging the IR with appliances, clutches etc..; the employee has direct contact with the IR (Teach-in-Programmieren). With the Automatikbetrieb, the IR departs the program automatically; overseen the person, ggf puts. parts one. In the framework of the upkeep, u must. U. are worked on the switched on IR with the troubleshooting. After the accident-statistics, the endangering is the biggest when programming and in good condition-holds.
IR-Sicherheitsmaßnahmen refer to four areas:
Existence of adjustable restrictions for the movement in the main-axes
Avoids / roofs of squash, shear, guts and sting-places
Appliances to transporting as well as. installs the IR at the installation-place.
Restriction of the movement-possibility
Need-hold at the tax-closet and at the programming-hand-appliance
Lockable business-species-selector switch
It possibly arranges only with reduced speed
Tip-counters for all movements
In-relationship of the protection-facilities (Z). B. light-curtain, position-counters of the door, switch-mat
Disturbances in the energy-supply cannot lead to the endangering.
Need-hold of sufficient number existing
Big installations are to be subdivided into several clear areas (Z). B. marks, need-hold
IR of an IR-Anlage also can become drive individually
The access to danger-areas is prevented
Transfer-places of the workpieces are particularly secured
The access to danger-areas is especially regular and only certain people allowed
The personnel is trained.
Need-hold at the programming-hand-appliance
Program only in the tip-business
It possibly arranges only with reduced speed
Business-species-selector switches with operating mode of "furnishing"
All machines of the installation can be adjusted individually
Security-facilities can be turned off only with key
With work-speed, it can be driven only with consent-counter and at stay in an area expelled as protection-zone.
For the periphery of industry-robots, strict security-measures are stipulated. Separating protection-facilities (rails, cubicles) or protection-facilities with approach-reaction (light-curtains, light-fences, light-barriers, switch-plates, switch-mats, pendulum-tabs) must shield the danger-area of the industry-robot of traffic-areas and work-areas. The Automatikbetrieb can be only possible if the protection-facilities are effective and no people are within the protection-area.
Facilities are stipulated to the restriction of the movement-area (illustration) for the main-axes of the industry-robot. You/they should guarantee that the movements of the robot remain limited on the application-specific movement-area. This way Quetschstellen can avoid and are created protection-zones.
The command-appliances, that introduce the business, must be ordered outside the protection-area. After the opening of protection-doors in the rail or the interruption of rays of light for the access the installation can let itself start only again after a Quittierschalter was operated outside the protection-zone.
Furnishing and programming as well as the Automatikbetrieb should preferably from outside the delimited area from takes place. Alternatively, other precautions must be met for the in-judges or programmers as well as. additional means to the disposal, Z, stand. B. a programming-hand-appliance with circuit for all movement-functions, a need-hold-fungus-caliper on the programming-hand-appliance, a consent-counter for the programming-hand-appliance. Another measure is the reduction of the speed through attitude of the business-species-selector switch on "furnishing (illustration)."
Must be executed the security of serving circuits so, that the industry-robot in the mistake-case secures one for condition for people earns. Corresponding is valid for tax-circles in hydraulic or pneumatic controls. Easily attainable need-hold-facilities must interrupt dangerous movements in time, and quiet-place the robot. Energy-cancellations and - fluctuations cannot cause any dangerous situations.
At interlinked installations, each industry-robot can become drive individually. To arms and programming-purposes, a need-hold must exist for the total-installation including the necessary number of command-appliances on the spot. Also need-hold-facilities for parts near big installations are allowable provided the parts are unequivocally recognizable.
Especially, the personnel must be trained for Einrichtarbeiten and upkeep and experience has in the contact with industry-robots. The employees must own the user-information and competently are admitted, Z. B. through the manufacturer as well as. suppliers.
In the robot-technology, the terms "Assistierende Roboter" and (engl. "assisting" or "collaborative robots") "cooperating robots" are increasingly used (engl. "co-operating" or "synchronized robots").
Until now, human being and robots strictly of each other work separated. It now is goal to employ robots also as assistants and to combine her/its/their advantages (endurance, precision, strength and speed) with the abilities of the human being. You/they then take over Z. B. in the montage the exact, always recurrent supply and removal and the human being the difficult positioning. A so-called sure control should guarantee that the movements of the robot don't become dangerous for the human being. With too high speed or wrong position, she/it immediately stops the robot.
Cooperating robots don't work together with the human being. The cooperation takes place between two or several robots, that Z. B. simultaneously at a module perspiration-works executes. Regarding the security-technology, installations with cooperating robots are similar for the conventional installations. There is the difference with furnishing. Cooperating robots are steered in the rule of a central control, to which only one single consent-counter is assigned. Therefore it must be seized that the in-judge always has view on all robots. Alternatively, the installation or the control must either be altered.
Ordinance over security and health-protection with the preparation of work-means and their use with the work, over security at the business of supervision-needy installations and over the organization of the operational work-protection (operational safety-ordinance - BetrSichV) (CHV 16)
UVV laser-radiation (BGV B) 2, / (GUV-V B2)
Security-rules for touch-loosely working protection-facilities at power-driven work-means (ZH 1/597)
TRBS 1151 endangering at the interface human being-work-means - ergonomic and human factors
TRBS 2210 endangering through interactions
DIN 66314-1 interface between programming and robot-control - IRDATA; General construction, sentence-types and transfer
DIN EN 349 immunities of machines; Minimum-distances between the avoidance of the pinch of body-sharing
DIN EN ISO 10218-1 industry-robots; Security-requests; Robots
DIN EN ISO 12100-1 immunities of machines; Fundamental ideas, general formation-guiding principle; Fundamental terminology, methodology
DIN EN ISO 12100-2 immunities of machines; Fundamental ideas, general formation-guiding principle; Technical guiding principle
DIN EN ISO 13850 immunities of machines - need-hold - formation-guiding principle
DIN EN ISO 13857 immunities of machines; Security-distances between the achievement of endangering-areas with the upper and low limbs
VDI 2854 safety-related requests for automated production-systems
VDI 2860 montage and handling-technical departments; Handling-functions, handling equipments, concepts, definitions, symbols
VDI 2861 montage and handling-technical departments; Kenngrößen for industry-robots (leaves 1-3)
VDI 3542 safety-related concepts for automation-systems (leaves 1-4)
Haun, M.: handbook Robotik - programming and use of intelligent robots, Jumper Verlag, Berlin 2007
Compartment-committee mechanical engineering, production-systems, steel-construction; Subject industry-robots.